Theresa May – Johnson`s predecessor in Downing Street – has repeatedly failed to pass her Brexit deal by MPs, leading to her resignation as prime minister. Charles Michel, President of the European Council, welcomed the vote and tweeted that it was an „important step in the process of ratifying Article 50“. He added that „equal conditions of competition remain a must for all future relations.“ He recalled the EU`s call for fair competition in exchange for a free trade agreement with zero tariffs and zero quotas. The European Parliament expects the withdrawal treaty to be ratified on 29 January, when the next steps at Westminster go ahead as planned and pave the way for the UK to leave the EU on 31 January. Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on October 17, 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP said they could not support the new agreement.  The government rejected the Lords` proposal to give the House of Commons the power to decide the next steps for the government if the withdrawal agreement was rejected by Parliament.  The Declaration on Future Relations between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration that was negotiated and signed at the same time as the binding and broader withdrawal agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU), known as Brexit, and at the end of the transition period. The three Labour MPs who voted for the deal were Ian Austin, Kevin Barron and John Mann. The three independent MPs who voted for the deal were Lady Hermon (independent), Frank Field (labour mp) and Stephen Lloyd (liberal Democrat). The five independent MPs who voted against the deal were John Woodcock, Jared O`Mara, Kelvin Hopkins, Ivan Lewis and Fiona Onasanya, all Elected Labour.  Parliament will have to approve any future relationship agreement. If such an agreement deals with powers that the EU shares with member states, national parliaments must also ratify it.
On the weekend before the amendment was voted on in the House of Commons, the leaders of the United Nations Group on Relations with the European Union signed a statement saying: „Members of all parties have already given valuable control to the EU withdrawal law and we have forced the government to make some concessions. But it won`t matter if we can`t really vote on the withdrawal agreement that the government is negotiating with the European Union.  On 20 December 2019, immediately after the opening of Parliament after the 2019 British general election (in which the Conservative Party won a large majority of 80 seats), the government introduced a new bill to ratify its proposed withdrawal agreement. She also moved another guillotine motion to limit debate on the bill. At the end of the debate, the government assured potential Conservative rebels that they would raise their concerns in a new amendment that the Lords should consider. The concession proposed by ministers is also expected to introduce a new parliamentary motion if the Brexit deal is rejected by MPs and colleagues that would open the door for MPs to take control of the negotiations if ministers fail to reach an agreement in Brussels.  The concession meant that the government had obtained 324 votes to 298, a majority of 26 votes.   The receipt of the agreement in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile, and the vote was delayed by more than a month.